|Wilhelm Heine was born in Dresden, Germany and studied art at the Royal Academy before immigrating to the United States in 1849. A skilled landscape artist and illustrator, he was selected in 1852 to accompany Matthew Perry as the principal artist on his expedition to Japan. Heine and lithographer Eliphalet M. Brown were responsible for producing the imagery for the official narrative. During the Civil War he joined the Union army and in 1868 was promoted to the rank of general. After the war he served as a United States diplomat at American consulates in Paris, Florence, and Liverpool.